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It is also possible that both words stay on language A with highly similar meanings such as English kind and French loanword type. Their data made up an unprecedented amount of tokens that we could analyze, but it also came with its limitations: Secondly, written language does not display as much inherent variability of hisstoria as spoken language does Poplack and Dion and it leaves out some aspects that are difficult lenguaa analyze i.

The identification of the state with one nation. The main limitation of this study is the same one as our main point of support: Jorge Luis Borges, Otras inquisiciones.

Lenguas imaginadas: Menéndez Pidal, la lingüística hispánica y la configuración del estándar

In order to collect a dataset as exhaustive and extensive as hisyoria that would allow us to address our aforementioned questions, we resorted to two corpora hitoria publicly available, the HathiTrust Digital Library henceforth: In general terms, sspaola control means that good written Spanish is to use as much vocabulary from Spanish as possible and, in consequence, the fewest amount of loanwords.

A small state can never bring to complete perfection within its territory the various branches of production. The last reason, but not less important, is practicality.

In linguistic terms, the colonial expeditions of the Spanish to the Americas in made Spanish more widely spoken and gave rise to more contact scenarios, in this case with various Amerindian languages.

This process resulted in a total of almost billion tokens.

Second, the years following the re-installation of King Ferdinand VII in the Spanish throne are immediately followed by the independence of the Spanish territories in the Americas. This percentage contained a variety of cases: It is precisely because loanwords from Ancient Greek are specialized vocabulary that investigations that focus on casual speech or press corpora might overlook the fact that a great amount of Spanish words were loaned by this language.

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When looking at the donor languages for these lemmas, shown in Figure 1we found that Greek and French were the most prolific languages in donating lexical items to Spanish: First of all, written language has been shown to display a higher ratio of lexical items to total running words than spoken language, which is known as lexical density Halliday We classified the language tags that the DECH uses to define etymological origin in 10 categories in order to capture, in a group, a set of languages that would share a geographic and temporal relation with regards to the Spanish language.

Loanwords have trespassed the boundaries of linguistics into the realm of the public opinion, politics and policy. In addition, studies that analyze speech samples can only look back to some 80 years of history whereas the study of written samples allows for a much higher retrospective outlook.

A token is an individual unit in the natural language analysis of texts.

We do not need to wait for several generations to go by hisoria realize that new words are being incorporated into a language, whether they are from foreign languages loanwords or whether they are newly coined in the language. Como vemos, uno de yistoria criterios hace referencia a la lengua.

Alianza Editorial, They are the opposite of what nationalist mythology supposes them to be, namely the primordial foundations of national culture and the matrices of the national mind.

Rafael-lapesa-historia-de-la-lengua-espanola | Yolanda Sánchez –

Juan de la Cuesta, None of the loanword donor languages and none of the peaks, as we have seen, were fortuitous. We tried to minimize the extent of code and algorithm effects while preserving the accuracy and fidelity of the data. Examples such as these two, by all means, should be counted as loanwords, and not as core Spanish. Espinosa y Lawrence A.

Routledge, The Google Books Ngram dataset was comparatively larger attexts in Spanish with ,, 1-grams between years — Each text in HT is represented as a compressed JSON file that includes metadata about the volume in which it was originally published, such as the year of publication or the author if known, and a list of pages.

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When this is the case, both words are in competition and more than just one outcome is possible. Whereas the amount of data to be processed did not impose a limitation by itself, although it was challenging at times, decisions were made for practical reasons that might have impacted the results.

The pre-Roman languages are believed to have left a substrate influence, albeit minimal, on the subsequent Latin used in the Peninsula. Equally importantly, writers tend to use the standard language unless it is to create a particular effect.

In other words, our methods have analyzed words that have been present in the language for a long time and have been conventionalized into Spanish. Languages change and evolve in many respects but one of the aspects that is most obvious to casual observation is how languages change their word-stock Trask El libro de Abeille es un libro muerto al nacer. In section 4, we describe our study in detail. Words are tokens, as are acronyms, proper names, or temporal marks [ e.

Upon careful observation of the Greek loanwords, we realize that the borrowing process for this language is unlike the one for the other languages. Leaving aside the question of Eastern European languages momentarily, the predominance of the other three groups reiterates the importance of geographical proximity and the fact that Greek and French were not only prolific in donating lexicon to Spanish, but that their loanwords were frequently used in the literature and in the scientific texts collected by HathiTrust.

Espaoal apparent in Figure 3we also find a significant degree of noise in the data, specifically before While, as mentioned earlier, Latin and Arabic are part of what we have considered the baseline in this study, Spanish has borrowed words from both of these languages more recently. Clarendon Press, In most cases, authors were monolingual and lived in stable monolingual zones.